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分類:文獻 發佈日期:2020-12-24
標題:【電子煙新興菸品】Flavorless vs. Flavored Electronic Cigarette-Generated Aerosol and E-Liquid on the Growth of Common Oral Commensal Streptococci

Front Physiol. 2020 Nov 23;11:585416. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2020.585416. eCollection 2020.

Flavorless vs. Flavored Electronic Cigarette-Generated Aerosol and E-Liquid on the Growth of Common Oral Commensal Streptococci

Jacob S Fischman 1Swapna Sista 2DongKeun Lee 2Giancarlo A Cuadra 1Dominic L Palazzolo 2

Affiliations expand

Free PMC article

Abstract

Introduction: Electronic cigarette (ECIG) use or vaping has become popular globally. While the question "Is vaping safer than smoking?" continues, it is becoming clearer that one of the most dangerous components of E-liquids are the flavorings. Since the oral cavity is the first anatomical site to be assaulted by ECIG aerosol, the aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that flavored ECIG aerosols or E-liquids pose a more detrimental effect on the growth of commensal oral streptococcal bacteria compared to flavorless aerosols or E-liquids.

Methods: Kirby Bauer assays and 24-h planktonic growth curves were used to compare the effects of flavorless vs. flavored (tobacco, menthol, cinnamon, strawberry and blueberry) ECIG-generated aerosols and E-liquids on the growth of four common strains of oral commensal bacteria (Streptococcus gordoniiStreptococcus intermediusStreptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis).

Results: Kirby Bauer assays revealed inhibition of growth for all bacteria tested when exposed to 100% menthol, cinnamon or strawberry flavors. In contrast, 5% flavor in E-liquid had no effect. When exposed to 100 puffs of ECIG-generated aerosol ± flavors (≈ 0.05% flavor in brain heart infusion media) or an equivalent amount of E-liquid ± flavors, twenty-four hour planktonic growth curves indicated no effect on growth for all streptococci tested. Subsequent twenty-four hour planktonic growth curves testing the effects of E-liquid ± flavors (0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.3125, 0.625, and 1.25% flavor in brain heart infusion media) revealed dose-dependent inhibition of growth, particularly for menthol, cinnamon and strawberry), for all bacteria tested.

Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis that flavored E-liquids are more detrimental to the growth of oral commensal bacteria than unflavored E-liquids. The streptococci tested in this study are early colonizers and part of the foundation of oral biofilms and dental plaque. Disturbances in the composition and growth of these primary colonizers is crucial to the development of a healthy dental plaque and host-bacteria interactions. E-liquids and their aerosols containing flavoring agents alter the growth of these bacteria. Such perturbations of pioneering oral communities pose a potential risk to the health of the oral cavity and, ultimately, health in general.

Keywords: E-liquid flavors; ECIG; aerosol; bacterial growth; oral commensal bacteria; toxicity.

Copyright © 2020 Fischman, Sista, Lee, Cuadra and Palazzolo.